All over the world, there are uncountable causes and forms of appearance of landslides and rockfalls; in different geological-geotechnical environments and settings. In numerous cases, they are initiated and generated by human factor. Changing of surface and underground conditions (devastation of vegetation – deforestation; variations of surface and underground water regimes; uncontrolled waste disposal of different origin; change of slope geometry, etc.) are producing physical instabilities of soil and rock mass. In consequence of such disturbed balance – landslides and rockfalls will be developed.
In populated areas and/or infrastructure regions, landslides /rockfalls are straight threat to human lives and habitats in general; causing huge damages/destructions of structures, producing traffic disruptions (highways; railway); cut of water and/or electricity supply; in some cases, to the scale of catastrophe.
Techniques for preventions and for remedial works are several/many, and are subject to geological-geotechnical conditions/properties of endangered ground and source of (potential) instability. Geotechnical products/structures, such as piles, micropiles, ground or geotechnical anchors connected with steel or reinforced concrete components; are commonly in geotechnical practice for prevention and/or repair of landslides and rockfalls; whereas reinforced concrete elements are retaining walls and braced girders – also known as “grillage”. Drainage; i.e. control of groundwater level must be secured by system(s) of excavated trenches and/ or bored drains.
KARST Ltd. possess an excessive experience in carrying out successful protection and/or remedial works on landslides by implementation of piles, micropiles, anchors, bored drains and gabion walls. Such technics are applied whether in urban areas, industrial complex, or at the roads/highways, railways and likewise. As well, jetting the shotcrete on top of the slopes, increase the stability, preventing degradation and dispersal of soil.
Rockfall protection, usually alongside the roads/highways and railways; includes installation of protective wire mesh in combination with fortifying works by use of temporary and/or permanent anchors (self-drilled and/or geotechnical) Systems of excavated trenches and/ or bored drains improving the slope stability by draining surface and leachate water. In many cases these works are carried out from scaffolds and/or hydraulic platforms.
Summarising the above explained; the works on protections of slopes and repair of landslides/rockfalls consist of:
- installation and testing of temporary geotechnical anchors with steel cables,
- installation and testing of permanent geotechnical anchors with steel cables,
- installation and testing of temporary and permanent self-drilling anchors,
- installation and testing of temporary and permanent ground anchors,
- installation and testing of piles and micropiles,
- spraying and testing of shotcrete,
- installation of bored drains,
- installation of gabion walls,
- construction of reinforced concrete structures (retaining walls and braced girders – “grillage”)
- installation of protective wire mesh